Vitamin D3 - the essential dietary supplement

Good levels of vitamin D3 in your blood serum are so central to human health that:

  • given sufficient exposure to sufficiently strong sunlight (see below), the skin makes up to 25,000 International Units (IU)/625 micrograms (µg) of vitamin D3 a day
  • many human body organs and tissues have specific ‘vitamin D3 receptors’ to extract vitamin D3 from the bloodstream
  • a blood serum vitamin D3 level above 50 nanograms per millilitre (ng/ml) or 125 nanomoles per litre (nmol/l)) reduces the risk of developing a wide range of illnesses. The latest list includes: osteomalacia (rickets); periodontal (gum) disease; osteoporosis and inability to build bone; rheumatoid arthritis; high blood pressure; bladder, breast, colon, gall bladder, gastric, ovarian, prostate, pancreatic, rectal and renal cancers; heart disease; multiple sclerosis; atherosclerosis; tuberculosis; seasonal affective disorder (SAD); depression; obesity and type 1 diabetes.
    One group of doctors is so impressed by vitamin D3’s potential for preventing illness that, taking the population of the European Union (EU) as a whole, it has compared (i) the cost of treating the illnesses partly or wholly due to vitamin D3 deficiency to (ii) the cost of giving everyone living in the EU a daily vitamin D3 supplement of 2,000IU (50µg) and 3,000IU (75µg). Its calculations suggested that giving every everyone a daily vitamin D3 supplement of this strength would save the EU 177 million euros
  • the adult body uses up between 3,000IU (75µg) and 5,000IU (125µg) a day .../continued below

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The pot of 200 1,000IU/25µg tablets is intended to provide just over a three month course of 2,000IU (50µg) a day.

The Green Health Watch Magazine
               Subject Information Print about vitamin D

If you want to read more about vitamin D3 we offer The Green Health Watch Magazine Subject Information Print on Vitamin D: 75 short articles (34 A4 pages): overview; vitamin D3 as a cost effective health solution; Government advice; safety; supplements; more science; chemical pollution; children’s health; autism; shaken baby syndrome; diet; breast cancer; heart disease; cancer; bones; muscle pain; multiple sclerosis; Parkinson’s disease; kidney stones; lifestyle and vitamin D3; vaccination

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For a short explanation of the scientific units used in the short briefing
on vitamin D below click here

.../continued from above

Vitamin D3-deficiency rife
Over 50% of whiter-skinned people and up to 90% of darker-skinned people living in the world’s more industrially developed countries are vitamin D3-deficient. So ...

How much vitamin D3 do we need?
What is the maximum safe daily intake?
What is the optimum blood serum vitamin D3 level?
Where best to get your vitamin D3 from - food, a dietary supplement, sunlight or a sun bed?

How much vitamin D3 do we need?
No-one really knows. It depends who you ask!

For instance, the UK Department of Health (DoH) recommends that:

  • pregnant and breastfeeding women take a vitamin D3 dietary supplement
    of 600IU (15µg) a day
  • babies and young children aged six months to five years take a D3 dietary
    supplement of between 280IU (7µg) and 340IU (8.5µg) a day
  • people aged between six and 64 years do not need a daily vitamin D3 dietary supplement. Most of these people, the DoH claims, will get all the vitamin D3 they need through direct exposure of their skin and eyes to sunlight. (Ed.- As far as we have ascertained to date, the DoH is the only national health service of a country situated so far from the equator that believes this.)
  • people aged 65+ years, and people whose skin is not exposed to much sun
    (i.e. most of us) take a dietary supplement of 400IU (10µg) a day
  • people with darker skin take a daily dietary supplement of 400IU (10µg)

The daily vitamin D3 dietary supplements recommended by the US Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) are generally higher (e.g. babies 400IU (10µg), one to five year olds 600IU (15µg), but critically, recognising that most Americans lead ‘behind glass’ lifestyles these days, the FNB recommends that also people aged between six and 70 years take a daily vitamin D3 dietary supplement of 600IU (15µg), and that people aged over 70 ensure they take a daily vitamin D3 dietary supplement of 800IU (20µg). The US Government states that 2,000IU a day is safe for all adults (children - 1,000IU) in normal health to take without a doctor’s supervision.

The US Endocrine Society recommends daily vitamin D3 dietary supplements of: (infants) 400-1,000IU (10-25µg), (children) 600-1,000IU (15-25µg), and (adults) 1,500-2,000IU (37.5-50µg).

Both the Canadian Cancer Society (CCS) and the Canadian Dermatology Association (CDA) now recommend that all adults take a daily vitamin D3 dietary supplement of 1,000IU (25µg) during the autumn and winter months, and that adults susceptible to low vitamin D3 levels take a dietary vitamin D3 supplement 1,000IU (25µg) all year round. This includes:

  • people who are older
  • people with dark skin
  • people who don’t go outside often, and
  • people who habitually wear clothing that covers most of their skin

The Vitamin D Council recommends daily vitamin D3 dietary supplements of: (infants) 1,000IU (25µg), (children) 1,000IU (25µg) per 25lbs of weight,
and (adults) 5,000IU (125µg).

Editor of Green Health Watch Magazine Nick Anderson takes 5,000IU (125µg)
of vitamin D3 a day.

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But perhaps our body knows best ...
Given enough sufficiently strong, direct sunlight on the skin and eyes, the body produces between 10,000IU (250µg) and 25,000IU (625µg) of vitamin D - depending on the strength of the sun - in just over half the time it would take to make the skin go pink. Even more amazingly, it also limits the amount of vitamin D3 the body produces in any one day to 25,000IU (625µg). After that, if any more is produced, the same direct sunshine works to destroy the excess! No-one knows yet why the body both produces so much vitamin D3 so quickly then puts a ceiling on daily production, but what zoologists do know is that Nature never designs systems as complex as the vitamin D3 system for no good reason.

On the other hand, the massive amount of vitamin D made so quickly certainly underlines the importance of vitamin D for all-round good health.

N.B. Generally speaking, the lighter the skin, the more quickly it produces vitamin D3. The lightest skins can produce vitamin D3 six times faster than the darkest skins.

Recommended Daily Allowances/Recommended Daily Intakes
So why are there such big differences between (i) Government RDAs/RDIs for vitamin D, (ii) the advice from medical experts and specialist medical associations (see above) and (iii) what the body does?

  • RDAs were first set during World War II by the US National Academy of Sciences as guidelines for keeping soldiers alive, rather than for the best possible health
  • RDAs are usually way behind the latest research findings as to what is needed to reduce the risks of developing a particular disease

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The Green Health Watch Magazine Subject Information Briefing about vitamin D
If you want to read more about vitamin D3 we offer The Green Health Watch Magazine Subject Information Briefing about vitamin D: 75 short articles (34 A4 pages): overview; vitamin D3 as a cost effective health solution; Government advice; safety; supplements; more science; chemical pollution; children’s health; autism; shaken baby syndrome; diet; breast cancer; heart disease; cancer; bones; muscle pain; multiple sclerosis; Parkinson’s disease; kidney stones; lifestyle and vitamin D3; vaccination
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What is the optimum blood serum vitamin D3 level?
- the case for ~50 ng/ml/125mnol/l

Nutritional scientists continue to debate what the level of blood serum vitamin D3 needs to be in order to both make a healthy human and reduce her/his risk of developing a wide range of illnesses. Some argue that it should be at least 20 nanograms per millilitre (50 nanomoles per litre) because 20ng/ml (50nmol/l) is generally sufficient to suppress the production of parathyroid hormone (which erodes bone). Others plump for 30ng/ml (75nmol/l) because the absorption of calcium in the gut (and in bone) is maximised at that level. Still others (like Bruce Hollis, Robert Heaney and Neil Binkley) argue that 50ng/ml (125nmol/l) should be the minimum. They note that:

  • there is growing evidence that blood serum vitamin D3 levels of ~50ng/ml (125nmol/l) are needed if one seeks to reduce peoples’ risk of developing many illnesses. Accordingly, they and many like them now stress the need to ensure a daily vitamin D3 daily intake of 5,000IU (125µg) - especially between September and April for people living more than 37+ degrees north or south of the equator
  • where its blood serum vitamin D3 level is below 50ng/ml (125nmol/l) the body uses up vitamin D3 faster than it makes it. One study found that the body of a healthy adult man uses up between 3,000IU (75µg) and 5,000IU (125µg) of vitamin D3 a day
  • when a young mother’s blood serum vitamin D3 level is above 50ng/ml (125nmol/l) her breast milk contains enough D3 to ensure adequate levels of the vitamin in the blood serum of her baby

The Vitamin D Council supports a target blood serum vitamin D3 level of 50-70ng/ml (125-175nmol/l) for four further reasons:

  • The average blood serum vitamin D3 level of humans who work in the sun in reduced clothing, such as builders and lifeguards, is between 40ng/ml (100nmol) and 60ng/ml (150nmol/l)
  • The average blood serum vitamin D3 level of people who begin to store vitamin D3’s parent compound (cholecalciferol) in their fat and muscles is around 40ng/ml (100nmol/l)
  • The average blood serum vitamin D3 level of our closest simian relatives, such as chimpanzees living wild in Africa, is between 40ng/ml (100nmol/l) and 60ng/ml (150nmol/l). This latter, by itself, does not prove, of course, that humans need such levels, but it certainly raises the issue
  • In 2015 a study found that 35 Maasai and 25 Hadzabe pastoral hunter-gatherers living in Tanzania near the equator had an average blood serum vitamin D3 level of 48ng/ml (119nmol/l). The levels ranged between 23ng/ml (75nmol/l) and 68ng/ml (170nmol/l)

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What is a safe daily intake of D3?
Again controversial. The US Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) accepts that 1,000-1,500IU (25-37.5µg) a day of vitamin D3 is completely safe for infants (i.e. aged less than twelve months) providing they do not have a contra-indicated medical condition (e.g. hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis) that may be worsened by high vitamin D3 levels, or are taking a synthetic drug (e.g. warfarin) which makes them hypersensitive to vitamin D3. It accepts that 2,500-3,000IU (62.5-75µg) a day is completely safe for children (i.e. aged one to five years), and that 4,000IU (100µg) a day is completely safe for those above five.

The US Endocrine Society’s safe maximum daily intakes are: (infants) 2,000IU (50µg); (children) 4,000IU (100µg); (adults) 10,000IU (250µg).

The Vitamin D Council’s safe maximum daily intakes are: (infants) 2,000IU (50µg); (children) 2,000IU (100µg) per 25lbs body weight; (adults) 10,000IU (250µg). Cautionary note. Although, given enough direct exposure to sunshine, the body produces 20,000IU - 25,000IU a day (see below), and one study suggested that a healthy adult man uses 3,000 - 5,000IU a day (reference), until more research has been carried out on the safety of taking in vitamin D3 via the mouth, the Vitamin D Council advises people taking more than 2,000IU a day to work with a doctor or nutritional therapist and to check their blood serum vitamin D3 levels
several times a year.

Citing a 1999 study, vitamin D expert Geoff Venning states that to date there is no evidence of adverse effects from dietary supplementation with up to 10,000IU (250µg) a day in people not sensitive to vitamin D3. The lowest level of supplementation ever shown clinically to have an adverse effect was 40,000IU (1,000µg) a day taken for at least three months.

Research from Bruce Hollis and Carol Wagner of the Medical University of South Carolina (US):

  • found that it was safe for women to take 4,000IU (100µg) of vitamin D3 a day during pregnancy
  • linked high levels of vitamin D3 taken by pregnant women to reduced risk of complications

They recommended that pregnant women take a 5,000IU (125µg)
daily vitamin D3 supplement.

N.B. There are several instances where taking high levels of vitamin D3 may be inadvisable.
See ‘Contra-indications’ below.

Vitamin D and autism
Incidentally, the Vitamin D Council’s Dr. John Cannell suggests a link between inadequate blood serum vitamin D3 levels in pregnant women and an increased risk of giving birth to an autistic baby. His hypothesis has now won the support of neurobiologist Dr. Daryll Eyles: “Low maternal vitamin D remains a highly parsimonious explanation for certain prominent features of autism … Perfect parsimony is when one (hypothesis) explains all the known facts ... if there is one major autism fact the vitamin D theory of autism cannot explain, I have yet to locate it”.

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Where best to get my daily intake of vitamin D3 from?
Humans can get vitamin D3 from food, from a daily dietary supplement, from direct exposure of their skin to sufficiently strong sunlight, and from direct exposure of their skin to a sun bed. But in fact, for the average person living and working in a more industrially developed country more than 37+ degrees north or south of the equator, there is only one safe practical choice - a daily vitamin D3 dietary supplement ...

Vitamin D3 from food
There is no practical food source of vitamin D3 (whatever the sellers of cod liver oil may tell you). Here are the richest food sources according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the US National Academy of Sciences.

Dietary source International units (IU)
Cod liver oil, 1 tablespoon 1,360
Salmon, cooked, 3½ ounces 360
Mackerel, cooked, 3½ ounces 345
Tuna fish, canned in oil, 3 ounces

200

Sardines, canned in oil, drained, 1¾ ounces 250
After these, levels plummet to ...  
Egg, 1 whole (vitamin D3 is found in egg yolk) 20
Liver, beef, cooked, 3½ ounces 15
Cheese, Swiss, 1 ounce 12

The problems with cod liver oil
So, if someone living in the UK was aiming at a blood serum vitamin D3 level of ~50ng/ml, and therefore a daily vitamin D3 intake around 5,000IU (125µg) from October to April, the only feasible food source would appear to be cod liver oil (one tablespoon delivers 1,360IU (34µg). But, ideally:

  • this should be organic cod liver oil. (Cod are high up in the marine food chain so likely to contain significant levels of pollution
  • the cod liver oil would also have to be 'virgin' , cold-pressed and unprocessed in order to preserve its vitamin D3 content

Companies which have tried to find ways of (i) de-polluting cod liver oil and (ii) making it more palatable have found, in all cases, that the processes appeared to have reduced the oil’s natural D3 content considerably. For instance, all but one of Nordic Naturals’ cod liver oil products (famous for their purity and an excellent source of essentially fatty acids) contain no more than 40IU (1µg) of D3 per teaspoonful. Their capsules never claim more than 20IU (0.5µg). The one exception is their D3-fortified lemon-flavoured Arctic-D Cod Liver Oil. One teaspoon (5ml) is said to contain 400IU (10µg) but to date we have not yet been able to find a source in the UK.

Pre-formed retinol
There is another problem with cod liver oil that effectively rules it out. For every one IU (0.025µg) of vitamin D3 you get from cod liver oil you also get a significant amount (10IU (3µg)) of pre-formed retinol (a form of vitamin A). And pre-formed retinol counteracts
the benefits of vitamin D3.

N.B. Vitamin D3 may be usefully taken in the presence of beta carotene (another form of vitamin A) which does not have this effect.

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The Green Health Watch Magazine Subject Information Briefing about vitamin D
If you want to read more about vitamin D3 we offer The Green Health Watch Magazine Subject Information Briefing about vitamin D: 75 short articles (34 A4 pages): overview; vitamin D3 as a cost effective health solution; Government advice; safety; supplements; more science; chemical pollution; children’s health; autism; shaken baby syndrome; diet; breast cancer; heart disease; cancer; bones; muscle pain; multiple sclerosis; Parkinson’s disease; kidney stones; lifestyle and vitamin D3; vaccination
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Vitamin D3 from direct exposure to sunlight

‘Direct exposure to sunlight’ means:

  • going outside, not sitting by a window (glass filters out the ultraviolet light in sunlight
    that the body needs in order to produce vitamin D3)
  • baring as much of your arms and legs to the sun as you dare (and best not to wear tights)
  • not using sun lotions, creams, moisturisers, etc. (lotions and creams filter out ultraviolet light)
  • not wearing sunglasses unless absolutely essential (glass and transparent plastic filter out ultraviolet)
  • walking rather than going for a drive behind glass (glass filters
    out ultraviolet)

and, in order to ensure that the vitamin D3 your body has produced gets through your skin, inside your body and into your bloodstream ...

  • not washing the sunned parts of your body for two days (the time it can take for it to penetrate to the bottom layers of your skin and into your body and bloodstream)

In places more than 37 degrees north or south of the equator (e.g. north of Athens in Greece or San Francisco in the US, south of Melbourne in Australia or Concepcion in Chile) the sun is usually too weak between October and April to trigger the body’s production of vitamin D3. And from May to September (when the light from the sun is sufficiently strong to trigger the body’s vitamin D3 production) it is often too cloudy, or too cold, to sunbathe. And even on the days when we would benefit from a ‘sensible sunbathe’, we often cannot take advantage. We are supposed to be indoors, behind glass, probably working in some way.

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Vitamin D3 from sunbeds and sunlamps
The ultraviolet light produced by sunbeds triggers vitamin D production but, on balance we recommend against their use. The ultraviolet light they radiate is usually three times stronger than in sunlight and a half hour’s use is often the equivalent of a whole day baking on the beach. Because the temptation to up that tan is still very strong despite the anti-sunbathing propaganda of national health services and sun cream manufacturers, users tend to lie there a bit too long. This explains why several studies have found links between sun bed use and an increased risk of several different cancers (as well as with wrinkled and sagging skin)

On the other hand, it is now possible to buy Vitamin D sunlamps and sunbeds that reduce the risk of sunburn and developing cancer by emitting only the wavelengths of light (UVB) needed to trigger the body’s vitamin D3 production.

* Heaney,R et al. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;77:204-10

Contra-indications
There are several instances where taking high levels of vitamin D3 may be inadvisable, e.g.:

  • anyone with kidney stones, kidney disease, hypercalcaemia (a disturbance of the body’s calcium equilibrium leading to excessive blood calcium levels and the calcification of soft tissue, like artery walls), or hyperparathyroidism
  • anyone taking dyazide diuretics
  • anyone with sarcoidosis, any granulomatous malignancy such as lymphoma, oat-cell lung cancer, or when cancer has spread to the bone

There are other instances where high levels of vitamin D3 may be inadvisable, such as pregnancy or breastfeeding, so Green Health Watch strongly advises anyone considering a high daily dosage of vitamin D3 to first consult their doctor. S/he can also prescribe a test to check for vitamin D3 deficiency.

The most reliable test for vitamin D3 deficiency
The Vitamin D Council (www.vitamindcouncil.org) recommends that people wishing to test their blood levels of D3 request a 25-hydroxy-vitamin D blood test. It warns that many doctors will automatically order a test for activated vitamin D (1,25-di-hydroxy-vitamin D or calcitriol) levels, but that calcitriol levels should never be used to determine adequate D3 levels because calcitriol is often elevated in cases of vitamin D deficiency.

However, the limitations of the current technology make even the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D blood test unreliable. (Different laboratories report different results from the same specimen of blood. The same laboratory will often report significantly different levels from the same specimen of blood at different times.) In general, low numbers are more reliable than high numbers because interfering substances can easily give falsely elevated results.

One of the more reliable testing facilities in the UK is the Endocrine Laboratory in the Clinical Chemistry Department of Charing Cross Hospital (Fulham Palace Road, London, W6 8RF Tel: 0208 383 3645), but this service may only be accessed via your GP.

This laboratory considers blood serum vitamin D3 levels below 10ng/ml (25nmol/l) to be D3 deficient, levels between 10 and 20ng/ml (25 and 50nmol/l) to be insufficient, and levels betweeen 20 and 30ng/ml (50 and 75nmol/l) to be sufficient. Levels above 30ng/ml (75nmol/l) are rare unless the patient is taking vitamin D3 supplements.

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The Green Health Watch Magazine Subject Information Briefing about vitamin D
If you want to read more about vitamin D3 we offer The Green Health Watch Magazine Subject Information Briefing about vitamin D: 75 short articles (34 A4 pages): overview; vitamin D3 as a cost effective health solution; Government advice; safety; supplements; more science; chemical pollution; children’s health; autism; shaken baby syndrome; diet; breast cancer; heart disease; cancer; bones; muscle pain; multiple sclerosis; Parkinson’s disease; kidney stones; lifestyle and vitamin D3; vaccination
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A vegetarian product
Source Naturals’ vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol - 200 x 1,000IU capsules) is extracted from the cholesterol in the lanolin in sheeps wool. The cholesterol is part-converted to D3 via a process similar to how the human body makes D3.

  • The capsule also contains magnesium stearate (from palm oil), but no added sugar, starch, salt, wheat, gluten, corn, yeast, dairy products, preservatives, colourings,
    fragrances or flavourings
  • No sheep is injured or killed during shearing
  • The vitamin D3 is not organic and not certified to be pesticide free
  • The capsules casings are made from microcrystalline cellulose and hydroxypropyl-methyl cellulose, so suitable for vegetarians
  • Once opened the tub should be kept tightly closed in a cool, dry, dark place
    out of reach of children

Read more research on vitamin D!

Vitamin D could prevent 600,000 deaths a year!

"Low vitamin D levels kill 45,000 Americans every year!"

Vitamin D - how much do I need?

Vitamin D - how much sunlight?

Low Vitamin D heart disease patients twice as likely to die

Vitamin D protected against heart disease

Vitamin D reduced blood clotting

Test your Vitamin D3 level!

Vitamin D protected against many cancers

Vitamin D, cancers and latitude

Vitamin D - no practical food sources

Vitamin D - the need to supplement

Canadian Cancer Society plugs vitamin D

Most new UK mums deficient in vitamin D

"Over half of all babies born vitamin D-deficient"

Vitamin D reduced babies' risk of diabetes type 1

Rickets threatens UK kids

Could autism be caused by vitamin D deficiency?

Breasts produce Vitamin D to fight off breast cancer

Vitamin D cut risk of developing breast cancer by a third

How Vitamin D protects against colon cancer

Vitamin D protected against lung cancer

Vitamin D protected against ovarian cancer

Vitamin D lengthened lives of prostate patients

Vitamin D and calcium reduced risk of falls

Vitamin D and calcium reduced risk of fractures

Vitamin D protected against hip fracture

Vitamin D helped body absorb calcium

Vitamin D protected against rheumatoid arthritis

Back and muscle pain vitamin D deficiency?

VitaminD "may halve risk of developing MS"

Vitamin D Parkinson’s patient's "remarkable improvement"

Vitamin D kept brains sharper

Vitamin D protected against gum disease

Vitamin D protected against flu

Vitamin D could prevent and treat bird flu

Vitamin D and 'synthetic sunshine!'

Sunbed boosted vitamin D levels

Vitamin D - the technical bit

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The Green Health Watch Magazine Subject Information Briefing about vitamin D
If you want to read more about vitamin D3 we offer The Green Health Watch Magazine Subject Information Briefing about vitamin D: 75 short articles (34 A4 pages): overview; vitamin D3 as a cost effective health solution; Government advice; safety; supplements; more science; chemical pollution; children’s health; autism; shaken baby syndrome; diet; breast cancer; heart disease; cancer; bones; muscle pain; multiple sclerosis; Parkinson’s disease; kidney stones; lifestyle and vitamin D3; vaccination
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Vitamin D3 1,000IU250 caps VEGETARIAN HVITD31000


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